‘We’re Replacing Pedagogy’

November 21, 2014
Carl Straumsheim

ARLINGTON, Va. — Academic libraries can help promote the adoption of open educational resources, but ultimately the push for open content has to be about more than textbooks, advocates said this week during the Open Ed Conference.

The conference, which concludes today, comes on the heels of two reports suggesting that adoption of OER has the potential to grow dramatically in the next three years — if faculty members are able to discover the resources they need.

One survey, conducted by the Babson Survey Research Group, found that nearly three-quarters of faculty member respondents in the U.S., or 73.4 percent, said open resources offer the same or better quality as traditional textbooks. Also of importance to the OER movement: 77.5 percent anticipated they either will or might use open resources in the next three years. Only 6.2 percent said they were not interested.

Another report, released as OER advocates gathered for the conference’s first day on Wednesday, contained good news about student attitudes toward open resources. Research out of the OER Research Hub, housed at the Open University in the United Kingdom, found 55.7 percent of surveyed students in 180 countries said open resources improve student satisfaction. Another 60.1 percent said they were more interested in the topics taught in courses using open resources than those in courses using traditional textbooks.

Those results are promising, advocates for open resources say, but they still face an institution-by-institution grind to make faculty aware of their options, and ensure that the future predicted in those reports becomes reality.

One idea explored in a series of sessions on Wednesday: let academic libraries help.

“When you look at the challenges the OER movement is facing — how to find content, how to get it to students, how to get it to faculty … — it’s something libraries are uniquely suited to be able to help with,” said Nicole Allen, director of open education for the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (or SPARC), an organization that promotes open forms of scholarly communication.

Anchoring an OER initiative in the library could counteract the issues some faculty members report experiencing when they try to discover open resources; doing so could also help make them aware of the resources in the first place. In the Babson survey, for example, 65.9 percent of respondents said they knew little or nothing about open resources. Libraries have already helped support the growth of open access research, speakers said, and they can do the same for the discoverability of educational resources.

“It seems like there is a critical mass happening in academic librarianship or school librarianship that this is an idea that’s catching on, that people want to be a part of,” said Steven J. Bell, associate university librarian at Temple University. “Is there something we can do to bring people together to share ideas?”

The conference is one such venue. Now in its 11th year, the conference attracted about 400 attendees, many of them representing colleges and universities that have recently launched OER initiatives or plan to do so in the next six months. Community colleges were particularly well-represented, while only a handful of attendees represented liberal arts colleges.

Sessions such as “Adopt, Remix, Create: Meeting University Goals With an Open Textbook Initiative” and the less ambiguously titled, “How Not to Promote Open Sharing of Educational Materials at a University” encouraged listeners to learn from other universities’ experiments with OER.

The University of Wisconsin at Madison has run open textbook pilots since early 2012, and offers instructors $1,500 stipends to participate. Speaking as a slideshow presentation showed a picture of a hedge maze, James M. Jonas, academic librarian at the university, stressed the importance of building faculty support for open resources.

“Going into this program, I really thought that with a basic explanation, people would understand it,” Jonas said. “But as we went through it, there were a lot of misgivings about the work required to transform [the courses].”

One faculty member, Jonas said, expressed concern that “some white supremacist” could download an ebook produced by faculty, make a handful of changes and distribute it. Others said they were confused about the complexity of OER tools.

“Faculty members and instructional staff are busy,” Jonas said. “Support staff are busy. We are all busy. For most of us, this is not our day job. That gave people a different set of priorities.”

During a different session, Ann Agee and Christina Mune, librarians at San Jose State University, graded their efforts to promote open resources on campus. They awarded themselves an A for an open access textbook list that directs students to free versions of the textbooks their instructors assign — an initiative they said has saved students hundreds of thousands of dollars since launching in 2012.

A grant program for faculty members interested in replacing textbooks with free or inexpensive alternatives, however, started strong but has since slowed down. The number of applicants has fallen steadily each year, and with this year’s deadline coming up on Tuesday, Agee and Mune said they have only received one application so far.

Other speakers recommended faculty members and staffers focus on issues such as completion rates and retention in order for their OER initiatives to be successful — instead of simply replacing textbooks. The Babson report contained some support for that idea. On the list of most commonly used open resources, images and videos ranked first and second, while ebooks and open textbooks ranked fifth and sixth.

“There are textbooks for a reason, and there’s nothing written like a textbook out there that covers a topic in a page or two pages or five pages,” Jonas said in the conclusion of his talk. “You can’t replace a textbook with a chapter that covers the concepts with journal articles…. In terms of text, there’s nothing like an actual textbook.”

Jonas then pivoted to quote a common refrain heard during the conference: “We’re not just replacing textbooks; we’re replacing pedagogy.”

Two-Thirds of Faculty Unaware of Open Education Resources

By Rhea Kelly

Nearly two-thirds of faculty members in U.S. higher education are generally unaware of open educational resources (OER), according to a new study from Babson Survey Research Group and Pearson. Funded by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the project surveyed 2,144 faculty across a wide range of positions and institution types to explore the role of OER in higher ed.

Among faculty who are aware of OER, 79 percent reported that they use it in some capacity. But interestingly, overall respondents’ OER awareness did not necessarily match up with their OER usage. According to the report, “While only about one-third of faculty members claim to be aware of open educational resources, nearly one-half report that they use OER. There are even some faculty who said that they were not at all aware of OER who report that they have used it once the concept is explained for them. How is it that there are more faculty who are using OER than there are who say that they are aware of what it is? The answer appears to have two causes: the (lack of) faculty understanding of the term of ‘Open Educational Resources,’ and the fact that faculty often make resource choices without any consideration to the licensing of that resource.”

OER Types

Among faculty using OER, the most popular types of OER materials were images and videos (used by 89.3 percent and 87.8 percent, respectively), followed by video lectures/tutorials (59.7 percent) and homework exercises (55.8 percent). Slides and class presentations were the least likely resources to be used.

Quality and Cost

According to the survey, “proven efficacy” and “trusted quality” were the two criteria most important to faculty when selecting open education resources, while “cost,” “faculty ratings” and “provided by my institution” were the least important criteria for selecting OER.

Nearly three-quarters of faculty reported that the quality of open educational resources is the same as or better than that of traditional resources. In addition, cost was the one clear area where most faculty (85.7 percent) rated OER as superior to traditional materials.


The biggest deterrent to OER use is the lack of a comprehensive catalog of resources, according to the survey. Faculty also cited the difficulty of finding resources as a major barrier, as well as concerns about licensing. Most faculty had little concern about OER being up-to-date or easy to use.
deterrents to adopting OER

“While awareness of OER remains low among teaching faculty, it is not the critical barrier to wider adoption,” said Jeff Seaman, co-director of the Babson Survey Research Group, in a press release. “The time and effort required to find, evaluate, and adopt these materials is the critical factor for faculty.”


Among faculty members who are not current users of OER, 77.5 percent reported that they expected to use or would consider using OER in the next three years — a finding that was consistent across a range of academic disciplines.
projected OER use

The full report is available for download at the Babson site. http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/oer.html

About the Author

About the author: Rhea Kelly is executive editor for Campus Technology. She can be reached at rkelly@1105media.com.

Open SUNY Textbooks

Chancellor Zimpher Announces Affordable Learning Solutions Rollout As Part of International Open Access Week

Affordable Learning Solutions Website Makes it Easier for Students, Faculty to Locate Free Open Content

For Immediate Release: Thursday, Oct. 23, 2014
Contact: David Doyle; David.Doyle@suny.edu; 518-320-1311

Albany – State University of New York Chancellor Nancy L. Zimpher today announced that, in recognition of International Open Access Week and as part of the system’s first-year rollout of Open SUNY, students and faculty across the system would have access to a new Open SUNY Affordable Learning Solutions website that will make it easier for them to locate free open content such as textbooks and online courses by making them all available in one place.

Chancellor Zimpher encouraged campus faculty to incorporate Affordable Learning Solutions resources – available at opensunyals.org – into their curricula where possible in order to cut costs for students. Open SUNY Affordable Learning Solutions is meant to be used in conjunction with textbook rental and buy-back programs offered at campus bookstores.

“Twenty-three percent of college students nationally take classes without purchasing the required textbooks because they are too expensive. We never want that to be the case at SUNY, and with the introduction of Affordable Learning Solutions, it doesn’t have to be,” said Chancellor Zimpher. “In addition to saving students money by offering content free of charge, this new resource incorporates flexible teaching and learning practices that contribute to student success.”

In addition to open textbooks, there are hundreds of high-quality open courses, MOOCs, and other learning materials available in the Affordable Learning Solutions repository that come with Creative Commons licenses, which enable faculty to customize the content to fit in with their own materials and curricula.

“Faculty now have many options to utilize open content to improve teaching and learning while, at the same time, lowering the costs of higher education for our students,” said Carey Hatch, associate provost for Academic Technology and Information Services. “With nearly 460,000 students, SUNY has the ability to collectively save our students millions of dollars per year through the adoption of open education resources.”

The Affordable Learning Solutions website is comprised of the following resources, all available by online search at opensunyals.org:

· Open SUNY Textbooks, an open access textbook publishing initiative established by the libraries of SUNY Geneseo, Brockport, the College of Environmental Science & Forestry, Fredonia, Upstate Medical University, and the University at Buffalo. Currently, there are seven Open SUNY Textbooks in publication and 15 more in process. In the Spring 2014 semester, 185 students saved a total of more than $15,000 using Open SUNY Textbooks.

· Tompkins Cortland Community College is one of eight colleges nationally participating in the Kaleidoscope Project, which built 20 open courses. At TC3 from 2011-2013, nearly 700 students saved an estimated $700,000 on textbook costs as a result of the project. The college also saw a 26.7 percent increase in passing grades accompanied by a 15 decrease in withdrawal rates in the psychology courses developed by Kaleidoscope.

· Open SUNY MOOCs. Empire State College was one of the first institutions in the United States to offer a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and SUNY was one of 10 public university systems to launch an agreement with Coursera, enabling the use of the Coursera platform to deliver MOOCs.

· Locating, Creating, Licensing and Utilizing OERs (OER-101). An open, self-paced online community course built collaboratively by professionals from SUNY Buffalo State College, Empire State College, and SUNY Oswego, and powered by Open SUNY.

· Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching, (MERLOT). A collection of tens of thousands of discipline-specific open textbooks, courses, learning materials, and learning exercises. All the materials in MERLOT are reviewed for suitability for retention in the collection and when accepted receive peer-review and ratings. Anyone can search, retrieve, and use these materials. MERLOT currently offers 3,467 open textbooks encompassing a broad range of academic disciplines.

About the State University of New York
The State University of New York is the largest comprehensive university system in the United States, educating nearly 460,000 students in more than 7,500 degree and certificate programs on 64 college and university campuses, and online through Open SUNY. SUNY students and faculty across the state make significant contributions to research and discovery, resulting in nearly $1 billion of externally-sponsored activity each year. There are 3 million SUNY alumni worldwide. To learn more about how SUNY creates opportunity, visit www.suny.edu.

Complete Guide to Open Educational Resources

Low-cost, high-quality textbooks may once have been a myth, but no longer: Open educational resources provide a wide variety of free learning content for practically any subject. CT asked three OER enthusiasts for their favorite tips and tools.

By Dian Schaffhauser

OER Defined

“OER are teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and repurposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software and any other tools, materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge.”
— The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
stack of books

Table of Contents

5 Myths About Open Educational Resources
6 Tips for Using Open Educational Resources
6 Arguments for OER (and 1 Against)
16 OER Sites Every Educator Should Know
5 Ideas for Spreading OER
OER Formats, Accessibility and More


Boundless To Add Open Textbooks

Boundless To Add Open Textbooks

By Dian Schaffhauser


Boundless, which already publishes free textbooks that use repurposed free and open source material, is now allowing educators to publish their open educational resource (OER) textbooks via its authoring platform. The company said it is working with a dozen authors to add their OER textbooks to the library, including books on music theory, computer science and microeconomics.

Currently, all content is available free on the Boundless Web site. The company converts those textbooks into “premium” offerings by adding quizzes, flashcards and other digital content and providing instructors with class management tools for assigning quizzes and readings and receiving data about student usage. These are priced for students starting at $19.99 and are free for faculty. The individual authors of the new offerings may choose to make their content available in both formats too.

The new additions will work in Boundless’ reader, which is optimized for Web and mobile use. Readers, both faculty and students, will be encouraged to provide feedback and comments on the new content.

“Until now there hasn’t been a great way to publish educational content online. Authors have options of PDFs, epubs and blogs, but none of these make the content simple to share or search,” said Ariel Diaz, Boundless’ founder and CEO. Now, he added, authors will be able to publish their content in the Boundless e-reader “for millions of students and educators to use.”

One author, Catherine “Kitty” Schmidt-Jones, said she is “excited” to put her open music theory modules onto the platform in order to get in front of students and educators. “Before publishing my music theory modules as open resources, I was a music teacher in small-town Illinois,” Schmidt-Jones said. “The Internet has given me a voice as a teacher that the traditional publishing industry would not.”

Schmidt-Jones also submits her content to Openstax CNX, an OER resource that allows users to download OER content in PDF and epub formats.

16 OER Sites Every Educator Should Know

Open educational resources not only save students from triple-digit (or more!) textbook costs, but they also allow instructors to mix-and-match content for a more personalized, engaging learning experience. Here are 16 resources that offer a wide range of content and tools to help implement OER in just about any course.


Innovation, Access, and Open Education: The Business & Policy Case for OER

University Professional & Continuing Education Association (UPCEA) is the association for leaders in professional, continuing, and online education. It serves 365 institutions, including most of the leading public and private colleges and universities in North America. The association provides innovative conferences and specialty seminars, research and benchmarking information, professional networking opportunities, and timely publications.

At the recent Summit for Online Leadership and Strategy Cable Green, Director of Global Learning for Creative Commons made a general session presentation titled, ‘Innovation, Access, and Open Education: The Business & Policy Case for OER’

The slides are available at http://www.slideshare.net/cgreen/keynote-ace-upcea-san-diego-sols14

The recording is available at

New Partnership for Open Educational Resources

New Partnership for Open Educational Resources
January 30, 2014
In a match seemingly made in open educational resource heaven, the free textbook producer OpenStax College and OER support provider Lumen Learning on Wednesday announced a partnership that aims to save college students $10 million on textbooks by 2015. Lumen Learning helps institutions transition away from traditional course materials, and will use OpenStax College’s textbook offerings to bolster its catalog of open resources. The free textbook producer, based at Rice University, has published six textbooks so far and has another seven in the works.
“Lumen is the latest example of a growing coordination amongst philanthropic grantees to further the mission of access in a dynamic way,” Richard Baraniuk, the founder of OpenStax College, said in an email. “Greater coordination will fuel a more rapid transition to a more efficient and open market.”

Read more: http://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2014/01/30/new-partnership-open-educational-resources#ixzz2rtJDhEaH
Inside Higher Ed

2 Senators Offer Bill Promoting Open-Access Textbooks

November 14, 2013, 12:50 pm
By Lawrence Biemiller
A bill introduced in the U.S. Senate on Thursday would encourage the creation of free online textbooks by offering grants for pilot projects that produce high-quality open-access textbooks, especially for courses with large enrollments. Grant money would also be available to help faculty members find and review such textbooks, as well as to conduct research on how well open-access textbooks meet students’ and faculty members’ needs.

The bill, called the Affordable College Textbook Act, was introduced by two Democratic senators, Richard J. Durbin of Illinois and Al Franken of Minnesota. Senator Durbin introduced a similar bill in 2009 that did not become law, but he is revisiting the textbook-cost issue in the wake of a recent study by the Government Accountability Office (http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-368) finding that textbook prices rose an average of 6 percent a year from 2002 to 2012. The increase amounted to a total of 82 percent during a 10-year period when consumer prices rose just 28 percent.

Free online textbooks have been slow to catch on among both faculty members and students, notwithstanding the College Board’s estimate that the average college student spends $1,200 a year on books and supplies. But Rice University’s OpenStax College, among the best known of open-access ventures, recently added a sixth title to its offerings, with five more in the works, and officials say they expect to save $3.7-million for 40,000 students during the current academic year.